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Silver pocket watch with a rare course of a duplex Dimier Frères

Province Fleur (Fleurier), located in the Swiss Alps, renowned for its hourly production since the early 19th century. In many ways, the reason for this was the way the Swiss village life: old time farming was replaced by long winter period, in which even reach the mountain villages is almost impossible. Therefore developed in the mountainous provinces of the Swiss family of manufacture, in particular - hour workshops.

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If the Canton of Geneva has specialized in the art of enamel paintings, the "ridge" province Fleur was a clock for the Far East and Chinese market, made by special arrangements. The buyers of these hours were wealthy families and dignitaries, so great attention was paid to how the appearance of the clock, and the appearance of the mechanism. Watch for the Chinese market were created mainly based on the anchor or duplex gauge with central second hand. With rare exception mechanism took the standard, but even in this case, they completely etched. The most interesting were the arrangements with the Chinese "crab" duplex speed, feature is the shape of the tooth, which resembles a crab claw.

Come down to our times, "Chinese" masters of production hours are usually made by Fleur very similar caliber. One gets the impression that the village had only one machine for the production of parts, and several family workshops - for balance, wheels, hair, stones, boards and bridges. Hours of Fleur's always done with the axle bearings for large jewels. The most expensive watch covered engravings - as machine and hand.


The mechanism of "Chinese-duplex"

The mechanism of these hours are especially noteworthy. Sound of the duplex mechanism completely unusual - three quiet "idle" cycles of 1 / 4 seconds has a loud beat fourth, behind which is a leap second hand for a second forward. The second hand jumps from second to second, like a quartz watch!
European duplex. Duplex course invented JB Dyutertr (JB Dutertre) in 1725, and later refined in 1752 by Pierre Leroux (P. Leroy).

Duplex on the wheel made the stop teeth (long away from the center) and pulse teeth (short, closer to the center). Locking tooth can rotate the wheel duplex only at the time of overshoot through the slot in the axis of balance, and at short pulse overshoot tooth passes the oscillating hook axis force balance, swing it to the next oscillation.

Duplex course used in the 18-19 centuries in expensive high-quality clocks and chronometers in precision high accuracy.

Chinese duplex. Modification of the duplex with a second dead invented Edward Charles Jaco (Charles Edouard Jacot) in 1830.

Locking wheel teeth duplex (4, 5) are made with double lugs, they interact with a slot in the axis of balance. One tooth pulse (1, 3) has two locking teeth. On the one impulse oscillation requires three free. Numeral 2 denotes the moment of the free ("dead") oscillations, during which the balance sheet through the slot axis is the front overhang of the tooth. Figure 4 - the time of overshoot rear projection locking tooth, after which the pulse passes the tooth 3 rocking force on the hook for the balance.

Overshoot duplex wheel occurs every 4 clock cycles, or once per second. Wheel system transmits motion to the second hand, and it moves the needle quartz clock - one jump per second. It looks very unusual!

The illustrations are taken from LP Shishelova "Mechanics of the movement", Leningrad, 1933

Duplex course refers to the types of non-free travel. Vibrations are in constant contact with the tooth duplex wheel, and not free (this is called static friction). Achieve high accuracy in an unfree type of the complex: the accuracy depends strongly on the lubricant, the wear and roll each tooth.
Non-free types of stroke: the spindle, cylinder, full-duplex.
Available types of stroke: the anchor, hronometrovy.
Among all non-free types of stroke, a duplex - the most accurate. Very perfect for his age, it was used in precision instruments of time, chronometers and expensive pocket watch. With the improvement of the anchor and the cheapening of the hronometrovogo, during the second half of the 19th century gradually gave way to turn duplex positions.

Jumping second hand

We must pay tribute to the old Swiss masters, they came up with very clever ways to make the second hand move every second. As it may sound funny, but now jumping seconds hand has become obsolete - now it's a sign of cheap quartz watches. However, for the 19th century, such a function as a jumping seconds - it's very unusual, difficult and interesting.

Design feature (and problem) of the duplex - in constant contact with the tooth axis of balance. And therefore - friction, wear and short life span. In the low-cost implementations duplex (for example, Waterbury or New England) all of the details were made of metal. But the master of Fleur mechanism supplied by a ruby ​​roller on the axis of balance. Thinnest spot, carved from a natural ruby, has a diameter of 1 mm. And even with such a microscopic size to find a place for video slots.

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